The suburb of Fullerton in Orange County, California will set up a memorial to women who were forced into sexual slavery by the imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
It will be the 11th of its kind in the U.S. as part of a Korean-led campaign to shame Japan into taking responsibility for the atrocity.
A statue commemorating women forced into sexual slavery in World War II, in Glendale, California A statue commemorating women forced into sexual slavery in World War II, in Glendale, California.
The City Council of Fullerton on Wednesday passed a bill on placing a statue of a young woman symbolizing a former sex slave in front of the city museum. Similar statues have been erected in Glendale, California and Southfield, Michigan.
The 3-2 vote was passed after listening to opinions of Korean-American and Japanese-American residents, who make up small but significant minorities.
The same day, the City Council voted to support the U.S. House of Representatives’ resolution calling on Japan to make reparations for the atrocity.
The statue in Fullerton was initiated by the local government and a women’s group.
Back in 2010, when the first memorial honoring what the Japanese euphemistically refer to as “comfort women” was dedicated in Palisades Park, New Jersey, the issue was chiefly a concern of Korean-American communities.
But the issue has now sparked more diverse interest.
Local administrations in Nassau County in New York, Bergen County in New Jersey, and Fairfax County in Virginia have taken the initiative to set up monuments honoring comfort women.
Rightwing Japanese have attempted to throw a spanner in the works. They filed a suit calling for the removal of the statue in Glendale, and vandalized the monument in Palisades Park.
But the sabotage attempts have tended to backfire. With more victims testifying about their tragedy, many Americans have come to view the issue as a question of universal human rights.
Japan’s attempts to whitewash to admit its past wrongs have gone down badly in the U.S., where the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is often remembered more keenly than Nazi atrocities.
Several federal lawmakers who regularly lobby on Korean issues have visited the memorials, including Ed Royce, chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Adam Schiff, Scott Garrett, Bill Pascrell and Mike Honda.
Former Korean prime ministers Han Myung-sook and Kim Hwang-sik have also visited them.
A federal judge has dismissed a lawsuit filed against Glendale that sought the removal of a controversial statue installed in a city park to honor women coerced into sexual slavery by the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II.
The statue’s opponents were unable to show that the 1,100-pound memorial caused them harm and Glendale didn’t break any laws by erecting it in Central Park in July 2013, according to a court order signed last week by U.S. District Court Judge Percy Anderson.
The opponents — Michiko Gingery, a Glendale resident, GAHT-US Corp., an organization that works to block recognition of the former sex slaves, also known as comfort women, and Koichi Mera, a Los Angeles resident — claimed in court records that by installing the statue, Glendale infringed upon the federal government’s exclusive power to conduct foreign affairs, violated the supremacy clause of the Constitution and caused opponents to avoid Central Park because the statue made them feel excluded and angry.
“The fact that local residents feel disinclined to visit a local park is simply not the type of injury that can be considered to be in the ‘line of causation’ for alleged violations of the foreign affairs power and Supremacy Clause,” Anderson said in court documents.
The decision comes after more than a year of unsuccessful attempts to block, and then to remove, the bronze memorial of a girl in Korean dress sitting next to an empty chair. In addition to the lawsuit, multiple delegations of conservative Japanese politicians have traveled to Glendale to ask the City Council to get rid of the monument.
At the same time, supporters who visit the statue leave behind bouquets of flowers and gifts.
“We are pleased that the court recognized our City Council’s right to make public pronouncements on matters important to our community,” said City Attorney Mike Garcia.
William Benjamin DeClercq, an attorney for those who filed the lawsuit, declined to comment on the decision.
The Glendale statue, supported by the Korea-Glendale Sister City Assn. and the Korean American Forum of California, is just one example of a large-scale effort to raise international awareness of the comfort women’s plight.
Surviving comfort women have been calling on the Japanese parliament, known as the Diet, for years, to pen a resolution apologizing for the mistreatment of an estimated 80,000 to 200,000 women from Korea, China, and other countries.
But the awareness campaign has angered Japanese nationals who deny that their country was involved in a system of sexual slavery, despite a personal apology to former comfort women from an ex-prime minister and an admission by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs that some women working in brothels overseen by the government were deprived of their freedom.
Phyllis Kim, spokeswoman for the Korean American Forum of California, said her organization’s members are happy with the decision, but they plan to continue to work with local, state and federal governments to honor former comfort women.
“The decision did not change anything. The root cause of the issue has not been resolved and the victims are still waiting for an official apology and reparations from the government of Japan,” Kim said.
U.S. Officials Meet Former Sex Slaves
Two women who were forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese Imperial Army in World War II recently visited the White House and State Department to testify about their ordeal.
Lee Ock-seon (87) and Kang Il-chul (86) are among a handful of survivors of the atrocity. It was the first time officials of the White House and the State Department met the victims.
The two women arrived in the U.S. to coincide with the first anniversary of monuments in their honor in Glendale, California and New Jersey.
On July 30, they spoke at the White House with Paulette Aniskoff, the director of the Office of Public Engagement, for about two-and-a-half hours. The two women asked for the U.S. government’s help in their quest for justice before all the elderly victims are dead.
Kim Dong-suk of Korean American Civic Empowerment, quoted an unidentified White House official as promising to pay attention to the issue.
Aniskoff on Monday tweeted a photo with the two women saying, “Met with two brave Korean ‘comfort women’, Ok-seon Lee and Il-chul Kang, last week; their stories are heartbreaking…”
On July 31, the two met with officials of the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs at the State Department. Their visits had been arranged by Rep. Mike Honda, who played a leading role in the U.S. House of Representatives passing a resolution on the victims in 2007.
SEOUL, South Korea — The political and historical war of words between Japan and South Korea has found another battleground: the United States.
One of the first volleys in the battle for America’s sympathies was played out in a park in New Jersey in 2010, where Korean-Americans in Palisades Park won the right to install a plaque memorializing “comfort women,” many of them Korean, who were forced to work in Japanese military brothels during World War II. Since then, more Korean communities — sometimes backed by activists and even diplomats from South Korea — have begun their own campaigns either to acknowledge the suffering of the comfort women or, more recently, to win recognition for the country’s arguments that a nearby sea should not automatically be named after Japan, its onetime colonial ruler.
Legislators in Virginia passed a bill this month requiring books mentioning the Sea of Japan to also use its Korean name, the East Sea. New York is considering a similar measure. The ambassadors of South Korea and Japan visited the governor of Virginia in January to press their countries’ cases. Japan also hired four lobbyists to argue that the name change was unnecessary.
As the issues mount, the United States, which has labored to remain an impartial friend to both nations, has found itself in the middle of a fight between its two main Asian allies at a time when it wants their cooperation to face a resurgent China and a nuclear-armed North Korea.
“There is not one tenured professor on the East Coast who has not been contacted” by one or both of the countries, said Jonathan Berkshire Miller, chairman of the Japan-Korea Working Group at the Center for Strategic and International Studies Pacific Forum in Honolulu.
The Obama administration seemed to succeed in getting the two estranged allies to at least temper their bickering last week, arranging the first meeting between the Japanese leader, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, and President Park Geun-hye of South Korea on the sidelines of an upcoming nuclear summit in the Netherlands.
But the slight thaw comes after months of some of the most bitter divisions between the two countries in years, brought on in part by Japan’s election of a prime minister South Korea considers to be a dangerous revisionist of his country’s wartime history and the election in South Korea of a president whom the Japanese see as stubbornly demanding endless apologies.
The conflict is rooted in grievances going back to Japan’s brutal colonization of the Korean Peninsula from 1910 to 1945, and its attempts to extinguish the Korean culture. Experts say this internationalization of what had been bilateral disputes reflects the shifting balance of power in a region where a wealthier South Korea is challenging Japan’s century-long dominance. At the same time, Japan is showing more willingness to push back under the leadership of Mr. Abe, who has argued in the past that Japan’s wartime history has been depicted too negatively.
“There’s propaganda to depict Japan in a way that’s far from the truth,” Mr. Abe told Parliament last month. “There is a danger that such propaganda will have a huge influence on our children’s generation. I want to think of a strong public relations counterstrategy going forward.”
The Koreans have gained the upper hand, experts say, partly by casting issues like the women forced into sexual servitude more broadly, as violations of universal standards of human rights. Koreans are planning a permanent exhibit on the comfort women that likens Japanese wartime actions to Nazi atrocities, at a Holocaust resource center at the Queensborough Community College in New York City.
South Korea recently sent its gender equality minister to Columbia University with an animated movie about Japanese war atrocities that shows a “comfort woman” in traditional Korean garb raped by Japanese soldiers.
Japan, meanwhile, has sent veteran America handlers to universities and research groups to warn that South Korea was out to settle old scores, and might be tilting dangerously toward China.
While Japan officially apologized in 1993, and set up a fund with private donations to compensate some of the 80,000 to 200,000 women believed to have been forced to work in wartime brothels, South Korean activists want a more repentant attitude. Tensions increased sharply last month when Japan’s chief cabinet secretary, responding to growing calls by nationalist lawmakers to scrap the apology, said the Abe government would review the testimony of women used in compiling it. Mr. Abe later said he would uphold the apology.
Experts say that each side has the same goal: cajoling Washington into pressuring the other to make concessions.
“The U.S. is the main battlefield in Japan’s global public relations warfare against South Korea and China,” said Hiroshi Nakanishi, a professor of international politics at Kyoto University. “They are trying to reduce Japan’s global influence, and the perception is that they are winning.”
Experts said they expected the campaigning to only intensify ahead of President Obama’s visit to Asia next month, which the Americans hope will help mend fences.
Instead, the visit itself has become a new cause of one-upmanship between the nations: when a draft itinerary showed Mr. Obama spending two nights in Tokyo with no stopover in Seoul, Korean officials said they successfully demanded that the time in Japan be reduced and a visit be added to Seoul to meet with President Park.
“We warned them that China is being very friendly toward Park Geun-hye,” said Han Suk-hee, an associate professor of international studies at Yonsei University in Seoul, who was part of a three-day mission to Washington last month to explain the grievances against Japan. “Korea believes we have the moral justification to ask the U.S. to change Japan’s stance.”
The campaigning in the United States had begun heating up last summer, when Korean-American groups persuaded the city of Glendale, Calif., near Los Angeles, to build a bronze statue of a “comfort woman” similar to a statue activists erected on a sidewalk outside the Japanese Embassy in Seoul. Alarmed, Japanese right-wing politicians visited to press for removal of the statue, which the city has refused to do.
Activists in South Korea fought back by supporting Korean-American groups with historical literature and other evidence, including a visit by an 87-year-old comfort woman to the city for the statue’s unveiling. Japanese and Korean officials said the campaigns were independent and were not financed by their governments.
Still, South Korea’s Parliament voted this year to provide about $100,000 to help comfort women activists pay for travel, printing photographs and booklets and other activities abroad.
South Korean officials have also increasingly taken a public role in supporting the “comfort women’s” cause. That included the visit this month to New York by the gender equality minister, Cho Yoon-sun, who said she had also traveled to Europe to raise awareness of her nation’s position.
“The comfort women issue is still not as widely known to the ordinary public in the world as the German Holocaust,” Ms. Cho said. “We have to continue our efforts to make this known, and persuade Japanese political leaders to change their unforgivable attitude.”
Japanese conservatives are taking the offensive in the battle over World War II sex slaves – and it seems likely to do them more harm than good.
Some 300 legislators from around Japan have sent a petition to the city of Glendale, Calif., demanding the removal of a statue honoring women who were forced or coerced into working in brothels serving the Japanese military during World War II.
Supporters of the memorials say as many as 200,000 women from Korea and other Asian countries were forced to work as so-called “comfort women.” The Glendale memorial was built largely at the request of the area’s large Korean-American community. It is a duplicate of a statue installed outside the Japanese embassy in Seoul – one of many irritants to Japan-South Korea relations.
At a Tokyo press conference Tuesday, opponents said the memorial spread “false propaganda” and has resulted in bullying, harassment and discrimination against Japanese residents in the Glendale area. “Japanese schoolchildren are suffering from bullying by Koreans. Some of them told us they feel anxiety because they must hide being Japanese. Korean people are presenting this as a human rights issue, but this can only lead to a new conflict of racial discrimination,” said Yoshiko Matsuura, a Tokyo-area assemblywoman and representative of a conservative group called the Japan Coalition of Legislators Against Fabricated History.
The press conference appeared to be part of a concerted campaign to push back against comfort women charges. Japanese activists in California filed suit in federal court last week demanding the U.S. government order the city of Glendale to remove the statue, situated in a public park. Earlier this week, a spokesman for Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the Japanese government would review a landmark 1993 government statement that apologized and admitted responsibility for operating the so-called comfort women system during the war. Any change to that statement is certain to further damage relations with South Korea and China, already at a low point over territorial claims and historical disputes.
Taking the fight over comfort women to the United States is a “huge mistake,” says Brad Glosserman, executive director of the Pacific Forum CSIS, a Honolulu-based think tank.
“Clearly the American government is displeased by the notion that the Japanese are taking this argument to our shores and making it an American domestic political battle. It’s something they should settle themselves,” said Glosserman.
The issue already is causing controversy. Glendale’s sister city in Japan canceled a student exchange program in December in protest over the memorial. An online petition at the White House website in support of removing the Glendale statue has received 127,000 signatures; a petition in support of keeping it has attracted 106,000 signatures.
The memorial was installed in a public park in Glendale, a suburb of Los Angeles, in July 2013. It features a bronze statue of a young Korean woman sitting next to an empty chair. A stone plaque is etched, jarringly, with the title “I Was A Sex Slave of the Japanese Military.” A similar memorial has been built in New Jersey.
According to the lawsuit filed last week, installing the statue “exceeds the power of Glendale, infringes upon the federal government’s power to exclusively conduct the foreign affairs of the United States and violates the supremacy clause of the U.S. Constitution.”
Matsuura, who traveled to Glendale to deliver a copy of the petition to local officials last month, says the 1993 apology is based on unreliable and unverified testimony. She accused Korea of exporting the issue to the United States.
“We were shocked by a statue of a comfort girl in America, a third country, not in Korea. We have a responsibility to protest,” Matsuura said through an interpreter. A member of her husband’s family served in the Japanese Imperial Army during the war and was taken prisoner in Siberia, Matsuura said.
The Obama administration has become increasingly frustrated with the rightward tilt of Japan’s leadership. The State Department said it was “disappointed” with Abe’s visit in December to the Yasukuni Shrine, which glorifies Japan’s role in World War II.
Weeks later, it labeled as “preposterous” public statements by an Abe-appointee to the board of the national broadcaster, NHK, that the United States had fabricated war crimes charges against Japan’s wartime leaders to cancel out America’s own war crimes, which he said include the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the fire-bombings of Tokyo.
Glosserman says Japanese efforts to re-write wartime history are damaging the interests of both countries. “The United States wants Japan to be a more respected and more effective contributor to regional security, and to play a larger role in the region. And all that this historical revisionism does is undermine that,” he says.
By Time Magazine
President Park Geun-hye sat down for talks with U.S. lawmakers on Tuesday, and used the opportunity to highlight unresolved issues surrounding Japan’s use of sex slaves during World War Two.
Meeting a group led by U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Ed Royce, the president said just 55 of Korea’s sexual slavery victims, better known as “comfort women,” remain alive today.
President Park thanked Royce for taking the lead in Congress in support of Korea’s efforts to resolve historical issues with Japan, and for visiting a comfort women memorial in Glendale, California.
Representative Royce expressed support for President Park’s vision for reunification with North Korea, saying it would pave the way to provide new opportunities for the North Korean people.